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Wireless sensor network:
DEFINITION
»
Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that uses wireless infrastructure (usually, but not always radio waves) for network connections. It needs network components such as Wi-Fi adapter, wireless router / modem, etc.,
 
Types:
  • Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network)
  • Wireless LAN (Local Area Network)
  • Wireless Mesh Network
  • Wireless MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  • Wireless WAN (Wide Area Network)
  • Cellular Network (Mobile Network)
 
»
Wireless Sensor Network
  • A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc.
  • The WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors.
  • Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting.
  • The topology of the WSNs can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network.
 
Block Diagram:
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WSN Network Topologies:
 
» WSN nodes are typically organized in one of three types of network topologies.
  • Star topology- star topology, each node connects directly to a gateway.
  • Cluster tree network- cluster tree network, each node connects to a node higher in the tree and then to the gateway, and data is routed from the lowest node on the tree to the gateway.

Mesh networks- mesh networks feature nodes that can connect to multiple nodes in the system and pass data through the most reliable path available.

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Advantages
»
  • It avoids a lot of wiring
  •  It can accommodate new devices at any time
  •  It's flexible to go through physical partitions
  •  It can be accessed through a centralized monitor
 
Real Time Examples
»
  • Area monitoring
  • Environmental/Earth monitoring
  • Air quality monitoring
  • Air pollution monitoring
  • Forest fire detection
  • Landslide detection
  • Water quality monitoring
  • Natural disaster prevention
  • Machine health monitoring
  • Agriculture
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
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